Incidence of thyroid dysfunction in antenatal women and its effect on fetomaternal outcomeJournal: International Archives of Integrated Medicine (IAIM) (Vol.3, No. 11)
Publication Date: 2016-11-15
Authors : Joshi K; Bhatt M; Saxena R;
Page : 136-142
Keywords : Hypothyroidism; Pregnancy; Complication.;
Background: Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disease in pregnant women. Hypothyroidism is a more common dysfunction encountered in pregnancy. Aim: To study the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in antenatal cases and its effect on fetomaternal outcome. Materials and methods: Total 50 cases of pregnancy with thyroid disorder were selected. Detailed history was taken and full clinical and general examination was performed using a predesigned proforma including clinical feature suggestive of thyroid dysfunction. Serum TSH, T3, T4, fT3, fT4 was measured by CLIA (Chemiluminescence Immunoassay) in all the cases as initial hormonal screening investigations. Results: The overall percentage in our study was 15.97% and out of this 74% was without any symptom i.e. subclinical and only 26% had symptoms. Caesarian section rate was (30% v/s 0%), 18% with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected. In controls, 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism were detected. The most common complication associated with hypothyroidism was abortion (14%) and PIH (16% v/s 56%) hyperemesis gravidarum (9% v/s 3%) and hemorrhage in early pregnancy (22% v/s 8%) We also observed that hypothyroidism is associated with more complications even if it is subclinical (42%). Conclusion: The study concludes that thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy is often significantly associated with maternal complications most commonly abortions, anemia, preterm labour and abruption. Higher caesarean rates are also observed among hypothyroid mothers. Low Apgar scores, increased NICU admissions, low birth weight mainly due to prematurity are usually noted in the neonate. The early administration of treatment and maintenance of a normal level of thyroid hormones significantly minimize the risk of maternal and fetal complications.
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