THE “TATAR PASSWAY”: THE FISCAL PROVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT AND TRANSPORT COMMUNICATIONS IN THE GOLDEN HORDE STATE (IN RUSSIAN TERRITORIES)Journal: Golden Horde Review (Vol.5, No. 3)
Publication Date: 2017-09-28
Authors : Ju.V. Seleznjov;
Page : 591-599
Keywords : Jochid ulus; Golden Horde; fiscal policy; Rus’; Novgorod; Tver; Ryazan; monetary-weight system;
Research objectves: To study the forms and means of fiscal support for the travel and accommodation of the Horde's ambassadors and officials in the territory of subordinate peoples (with the example of Russian principalities). Research materials: A diverse group of written historical sources of Russian, Western European, Persian, Mongolian, Chinese origin (annals and acts), historical materials, source studies, and archaeological research. Results and novelty of the research: Keeping local authorities informed of imperial orders, clarification of tax, and military duties required constant interaction of management services at various levels. Accommodating the stays of “strong ambassadors”, basqaqs, “chislenniks”, darugachis and other officials of the Horde's administrative apparatus was provided at the expense of the treasury and required financial expenses. The subjugated, tax-paying population and the local administration were obliged to maintain these categories of officials, as noted by a Chinese official, Xu Ting. Juwayni designated such charges, which included the provision of military units, with the term “tuzga”. In another place, the Persian author separated the tuzga from the provision of troops. Describing the return from the Khagan of Khorasan ruler, Amir Korguz, Juwayni stressed that the tuzga was prepared for him and yarlyks were read out only after that. Hence, in the 1250s, the charges for the travel and accommodation of the Horde's ambassadors and officials was designated as “tuzga”. It included forage, food, utensils and other support for the movement of an official (equipment, shelter/tents). During such receptions, the will of the supreme ruler was conveyed to the local subordinate rulers (yarliks were read and the yasas proclaimed). Apparently, this permanent tax gradually turned into an extraordinary one or the obligation to pay it was assigned to special categories of the taxable population. However, extraordinary, unplanned embassy missions caused the need to collect additional funds. Evidence in sources of Russian origin suggest that such a charge was equal to one percent of the total amount of the annual tribute.
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