Comparative Studies On Graham Glass Condensing Model Types As And Bs For Extraction Of Natural Dyes From Lawsonia InermisJournal: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH AND PUBLICATIONS (Vol.1, No. 5)
Publication Date: 2017-11-20
Authors : Jekada J.Z.; Gonah C. M.; Garkida A. D.; Ladam Z;
Page : 369-373
Keywords : Graham Condenser; Extraction and Lawsonia Inermis;
This study was undertaken with a view to investigating the effect of the number of bulbs on the performance Graham outer jacket glass condensers. AutoCAD was used to design Graham condensers varying the number of bulbs from one to ten 1-10 on the outer jacket while maintaining the following specifications outer bulbs size of 48 mm distance from bulb to bulb 18mminner tube length 9679 mm outer tube length 40720 outlets and inlets 91.5 mm and the length of quick fit 84 mm. Ten 10 assorted pieces of each type As and Bs of this modified structures of Graham condensing models were fabricated. For types As Graham condensers the outlet and inlet tubes were joined to their jackets while for the type Bs Graham models the outlet and the inlet tubes were joined directly to their inner tubes. The performance of these condensers were evaluated using extraction protocol involving leave of lawsonia inermis natural dye acetone used as solvent. Results of extraction obtained showed types AsGraham condensing models gave the highest yield of crude extracts of 43.00 and types Bs condensing models with 7 bulbs yielded 41.35.
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