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Temporal mechanism impact hazard fire on nuclear power plants staff and comprehensive protection against them

Journal: Pozharovzryvobezopastnost/Fire and Explosion Safety (Vol.26, No. 8)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 15-24

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Abstract

Introduction. The analysis of large fires and accidents at nuclear power plants in Russia and the world testifies to the serious consequences for the population living in the surrounding areas, as well as the state in general. Fires are most often arise in the machine rooms, the reactor compartments, open distribution devices and of the deaerator stacks. The specificity of fires at nuclear power plants is that they can appear as the initial event for the development of the project, or serious accident, and subsequent events initiated by the accident. This study considers the impact of a fire hazards to the operating nuclear power plant personnel and methods of protection against them in the mode of shift work. Materials and methods. There are conducted settlement and analytical research of the dynamics of fires in typical premises, buildings and technological nuclear installations and the analysis of the reaction fire units on the protection of nuclear power plants to the place of a call (fire). Theory and calculation. The resulting critical indicators of impact of hazardous fire on human factors formed the basis for the development of a special set of protective equipment of operating personnel. The list of human means of protection includes: § human body means of protection from exposure to sparks, open flame (the protective cloak, protective mittens, protective footwear, protective helmet); § respiratory protection and eye (breathing apparatus with compressed air). Results. Carried out a series of experiments, using the educational and training complexes showed acceptable level of protection against fire hazards and convenience of use the special set of means of protection designed for operating personnel. Discussion. The degree of protection of workers from the effects of fire hazards during the work in the initial stage of the fire can be considered acceptable based on use of developed set of means of protection and an adequate level of preparation. Conclusions. The study of the dynamics of development of a fire at nuclear power plants revealed that the main fire hazards affecting the execution of work atomic power plant operational personnel is the loss of visibility. The staff is not provided protective equipment must immediately leave the premises. Operational staff provided a special set of protection means can perform the work in the initial stage of the fire, and as part of a special unit for the prevention of accident, subject to appropriate training. Operational staff secured by a special set of protection means can perform the work in the initial stage of the fire, and as part of a special unit for the prevention of accident, subject to adequate preparation.

Last modified: 2018-10-17 22:48:07