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Journal: Pozharovzryvobezopastnost/Fire and Explosion Safety (Vol.25, No. 5)

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Page : 37-51

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Lack of reliability and effectiveness of automatic fire protection systems of buildings and structures do not allow to fulfill the requirements of technical regulations on limitation of spread of fire hazards (OFP) by placing the focus of its occurrence. Beyond this room, OFP have such a broad distribution that, despite the normative mode of operation of fire protection systems, people are still a few dozen seconds to escape safely from the floor. So many years the maximum reduction the time to start their evacuation is an urgent task for scientists and regulatory bodies around the world. The article analyzes the history of the regulation of the magnitude of the time to start evacuation in various regulations and the current state of affairs. The starting time of evacuation was examined for the first time after the survey of survivors of the fire in buildings (mostly residential) in the UK in the 70th of the last century and then continued in the U.S. and Canada. In our country the first studies were conducted in the 80th of the last century. Such studies, unfortunately, are occasionally held in other countries. The main problems of application of this parameter in Russian practice is that people should wait some time before evacuation. It's indicated that the type of warning system influences the starting time of evacuation, but the opposite way, i. e. the higher type of warning system, the start time of evacuation should be longer. This is due to the fact that with increasing type of warning system the complexity of the system, is growing which increases its inertia. It is shown that incorrect normalization of the time to start evacuation of people leads to the prediction of the places the formation of clusters in an entirely different place that does not allow to ensure the safety of people during evacuation and leads to excessive costs during construction. There are presented the results of the active study in our country made in recent years in educational and scientific centre of problems of fire safety in construction of Academy of State Fire Service of Emercom of Russia. There are outlined the scientific-methodical principles and methods of the research, based on the concept of psychophysical conditionality of the probabilities of human behavior at the stage of formation of start time of evacuation.

Last modified: 2018-10-18 17:36:44