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Results of treatment for Boerhaave syndrome

Journal: I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald (Vol.27, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 66-74

Keywords : esophagus; damage; esophageal damage; esophageal spontaneous rupture; Boerhaave syndrome;

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Background. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus (Boehaave syndrome, BS) is a rare pathology in the surgical practice. Esophageal rupture makes no more than 2-3% of all cases of damage to the esophagus and is associated with a significant number of diagnostic errors and with high mortality. Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the quality of diagnostics and the results of treatment of patients with spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. Materials and Methods. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical histories and of treatment results of 10 patients with Boerhaave syndrome hospitalized in the department of thoracic surgery of the Ryazan Regional Clinical Hospital, Ryazan in 2007-2018. Results. Four of ten patients were transferred from other medical institutions. At the primary care stage six patients were misdiagnosed; two of them underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for suspicion of acute pancreatitis and perforated gastric ulcer. The average time from the onset of the disease to surgery was 71.7±23.4 hours. Closure of the esophageal perforation was performed in all cases. Regarding the timing of surgery, all patients with Boerhaave syndrome were divided into 2 groups: patients with early intervention (4 patients operated within 24 hours); patients with late intervention (5 patients operated after 48 hours from the onset of the disease). One patient underwent surgical treatment within 24 hours in a medical facility outside the Ryazan region. In nine out of ten patients the rupture was localized in a typical place in the lower third of the esophagus along the left lateral wall. In the postoperative period eight patients had complete or partial esophageal suture failure, which required prolonged inpatient treatment (54.7±12.1 days). Postoperative mortality was 10% (1 patient of 10) and was caused by the progressive multi-organ failure and the development of cerebral ischemic stroke. Conclusion. The quality of diagnostics of Boerhaave syndrome remains unsatisfactory: due to rare occurrence of this pathology, most specialists of primary care settings, including surgeons, are not well acquainted with the etiopathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical presentation of Boerhaave syndrome. Diagnostic and treatment errors in rendering primary medical assistance reaches 60%. Results of surgical treatment directly correlate with the time from the moment of perforation and development of septic complications. Even with early surgical intervention performed within 24 hours from the moment of perforation, esophageal suture failure may occur in up to 75% of cases. Thus, the success of treatment is determined by early diagnosis, timely hospitalization in a specialized facility, and adequate surgical intervention.

Last modified: 2019-04-02 18:43:59