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Review on Principles of Zoonoses Prevention, Control and Eradication| Biomed Grid

Journal: American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research (Vol.3, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ;

Page : 188-197

Keywords : Control; Eradication; Prevention; Zoonoses; Chemoprophylaxis; Immunization; Biomed Grid;

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Zoonoses are “those diseases and infection which are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man”. The transmission may occur through direct contact with the animal, through vector (such as fleas or tick), or through food or water contamination. Zoonotic diseases cause mortality and morbidity in people, while also imposing significant economic losses in the livestock sector. Zoonosis constitutes a diverse group of viral, bacterial, rickettsia, fungal, parasitic and prion disease with a variety of animal reservoirs, including wildlife, livestock, pet animals and birds. The basic principles of zoonoses prevention control and eradication involves reservoir neutralization, reducing contact potential and increasing host resistance. Reservoir neutralization involves preventing spread of infection by removing the infected individual from the reservoir or by manipulation the environment where the reservoir resides. The removal of infected individual can be accomplished by means of a test and slaughter, and mass therapy. Test and slaughter have been most effective with agents spread by direct transmission and in which a limited number of reservoir species are involved. Mass therapy is usually restricted to a local situation in which all potential infected animals or people are treated without first testing them to identify infected individuals. Environmental manipulation can be designed to decrease environmental contamination by acting in relation to the portal of exit from the infected hosts or by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts by acting in relation to the portal of entry. A basic principle in preventing direct transmission of an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible host is to reduce the opportunity for contact between the two. Increasing host resistance may prevent infection of susceptible hosts or reduce severity of disease. Host resistance may be increased by genetic selection, stress reduction, chemoprophylaxis or immunization. The link among humans, animal populations and the surrounding environment should be done with proper care in order to protect serious consequence both for humans and for economically animals. Health professionals should educate the public about zoonotic diseases to effectively practice prevention, control and eradication strategies

Last modified: 2019-06-17 15:49:49