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Journal: I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald (Vol.27, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 258-273

Keywords : acute lower limb ischemia; endovascular treatment; catheter-based thrombolysis; mechanical thrombectomy; ultrasound-accelerated thrombolysis; pharmacomechanical thrombolysis;

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Acute lower limb ischemia (ALLI) is defined as a sudden decrease in lower limb arterial perfusion, which lasts less than 14 days and threatens a limb viability. This condition is one of the most common emergencies in vascular surgery, requiring immediate diagnosis and treatment, because untimely revascularization of lower limb leads to high amputation rate and mortality in postoperative period. Currently there exist many methods of lower limb revascularization, however, in fact, they all can be divided into two large groups: open, surgical, and endovascular treatment. The choice between them depends on many factors. Since introduction of Fogarty catheter, balloon thromboembolectomy became a «gold standard» in treatment for ALLI. Nevertheless, at the same time endovascular methods appeared, the first one being catheter-based thrombolysis (CBT). Since its appearance, CBT gradually improved with deeper understanding of indications for its use, improvement of the technique of intervention, appearance of different thrombolytic agents and instruments. Nowadays a number of international guidelines determine CBT as a first line treatment of most patients with ALLI. Endovascular thrombectomy techniques appeared in the 90s of XX century as an attempt to combine advantages of open surgery (rapid and, in ideal conditions, complete restoration of limb perfusion) and of endovascular intervention (minimal invasiveness). They include manual aspiration, rheolytic (hydrodynamic), rotational, aspiration thrombectomy and pharmacomechanical thrombolysis. According to numerous studies, these techniques demonstrate quite impressive results and, probably, in the near future one of them can become a new «gold standard» in treatment for ALLI.

Last modified: 2019-07-02 22:50:42