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Journal: Journal of the Grodno State Medical University (Vol.17, No. 3)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 289-295

Keywords : allergens; sensitization; dynamics; bronchial asthma; children;

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Вackground. Sensitization to allergens is a major factor contributing to the development of bronchial asthma, maintenance of its symptoms and risk of its persistence into adulthood. Objective: to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to allergens in children with bronchial asthma over a 10-year period (2006-2007–2016-2017). Material and methods. According to the results of skin testing (prick test), performed in children with bronchial asthma, the spectrum of cause-significant allergens (2006–2007: ntests=428 (household and epidermal – 178, pollen – 79, food – 171) and 2016–2017: ntests = 453 (domestic and epidermal – 195, pollen – 78, food – 180) was analyzed. Results. It was established that in children with asthma, household allergens (57.3%, CI: 49.96–64.34%) were the leading ones in the spectrum of inhalation sensitization. In the structure of household sensitization the first ranking places were occupied by allergens of the tick D. pteronyssinus (60.51%, CI: 53.51–67.11%), domestic (56.41%, CI: 49.39–63.18%) and library dust (53.85%, CI: 46.84–60.7%); in the structure of epidermal sensitization – by dog (32.31%, CI: 26.13–39.17%) and cat hair allergens (30.26%, CI: 24.23–37.05%); in the structure of pollen sensitization – by cock's-foot grass (44.87%, CI: 34.33–55.89%), perennial ryegrass (43.59%, CI: 33.14–54.64), rye (39.74%, CI: 29.6–50.85) and foxtail grass pollen allergens (39.74%, CI: 29.6–50.85%); in the structure of food sensitization – by wheat flour (38.89%, CI: 32.07–46.18%), cow's milk (37.22%, CI: 30.94–44.49%) and chicken meat allergens (37.22%, CI: 30.94–44.49% ). During a 10-year period, the children with bronchial asthma had a high prevalence of household and epidermal sensitization; an increase in the frequency of sensitization to household (p=0.0000), epidermal (p=0.0012) and food allergens (p=0.0000) was observed; there was an increase in the number of positive skin tests to allergens of dog (p=0.0037) and cat hair (p=0.0000), feather pillows (p=0.0000), library dust (p=0.0000), tick D. pteronyssinus (p=0.0000) and perennial ryegrass pollen (p=0.0001) as well as most foods (p<0.05). Gender features of the structure and dynamics of sensitization to allergens were established. Conclusions. The obtained results should be taken into account when conducting treatment and rehabilitation measures aimed at achieving control of bronchial asthma in children and its prevention in those at risk.

Last modified: 2019-08-19 20:04:02