STUDY OF FACTORS LIKE SMOKING AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH INFLAMMATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS IN PRE-DIABETIC AND DIABETIC PATIENTSJournal: International Journal of Advanced Research (Vol.7, No. 7)
Publication Date: 2019-07-05
Authors : Varsha chowdhry; Deepa thadani.;
Page : 841-847
Keywords : Pre-diabetes Diabetes Smoking Inflammation Cardiac risk indices.;
Background:Cigarette consumption increases both the risk of diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. It is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation; however the exact mechanisms are still to be elucidated. In this study we aimed to compare the levels of inflammatory markers and assess the cardiovascular risks in terms of CRR, AI, AC and AIP among the patients with pre-diabetes and diabetes. Method:This study included 100 control subjects, 145 pre-diabetic and 126 diabetic patients. The patients were further categorised into non smoker (44 pre-diabetes and 40 diabetes) and smoker (101 pre-diabetes and 86diabetes) groups. Inflammatory biomarkers likefibrinogen, CRP, IL-6, adiponectin and uric acid were assayed with standard kit methods. Result:We observed high levels of fibrinogen, CRP, IL-6 and uric acid, and low level of adiponectin in pre-diabetic and diabetic smoker group compared to their non smoker counterparts but the level of statistical significance was achieved in case of adiponectin only. Pre-diabetic smokers also demonstrated significantly high fibrinogen compared to pre-diabetic non smokers. We also found high cardiovascular risk in pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals irrespective of smoking status. Further we documented significant association of inflammatory markers with cardiac risk indices especially in case of diabetic patients and the association was more profound in the patients who smoked. Conclusion:Thus from this study it is evident that both pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals are highly susceptible to CVD risks induced by smoking. Diabetic individuals are further at a great threat compared to pre-diabetic individuals. So quiting of smoking can reverse the unwanted health outcomes of diabetes.
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