Oral Microbial Prevalence of Periodontal Pathogens among Orthodontic PatientsJournal: International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Health (Vol.2, No. 6)
Publication Date: 2016-10-04
Authors : David Jolley Kaylee Wonder Ecsile Chang Karl Kingsley;
Page : 1-6
Keywords : Periodontal pathogen; Orthodontics; Saliva screening;
Background: Changes in the oral microbial flora are commonplace during orthodontic therapy, although some evidence suggests these alterations may extend for some time after. Although many studies have screened for changes in cariogenic pathogen levels, more evidence is accumulating to demonstrate significant changes among periodontal pathogens within these patients. Although several studies at this predominantly low-income, dental school-based Orthodontic clinic have screened for cariogenic pathogens-none to date have provided multiorganism screening for periodontal pathogens. Objective: This goal of this study was to complete a retrospective, cross-sectional study of saliva samples to screen for Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis among orthodontic and non-orthodontic patients (n=125). Methods: Using previously collected saliva samples, DNA was isolated and screened using PCR using primers specific for each pathogen of interest. Differences in prevalence between groups (Orthodontic, non-Orthodontic) were measured using Chi-square analysis. Results: This analysis revealed the presence of these pathogens in nearly half of orthodontic patient samples and more than half of nonOrthodontic samples. These data also demonstrated females exhibited greater prevalence than males, while the overall prevalence among nonorthodontic samples was greater. This may be associated with higher average age, larger body mass index (BMI) and greater periodontal pocked depth (PPD) and decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) scores. Conclusion: These findings suggest the strong need to plan and implement a prospective study to determine the baseline prevalence of these pathogens among this patient population as they begin orthodontic therapy and how these levels change over time. This may provide more relevant clinical information for oral health scientists and local epidemiologists to determine the most vulnerable populations, as well as the best methods and timing for interventions to prevent poor oral health outcomes and long-term consequences associated with periodontal disease.
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