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Kidneys and microbiota

Journal: Ukrainian Journal of Nephrology and Dialysis (Vol.1, No. 65)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ;

Page : 48-57

Keywords : intestinal microbiota; dysbiosis; kidneys; uremic toxins; bi-directional interaction; targeted therapy;

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The review article analyzes the results of studies of the bi-directional relationship of the intestinal microbiota and kidneys, the so-called colorenal interactive axis of interaction. The intestinal microbiota is considered as a kind of organ that influences the brain, cardiovascular and immune systems, as well as the kidneys of the "host". Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) formed in the colon as the result of microbial metabolism from plant components of dietary fiber and acting as ligands for the olfactory receptor, paired G-proteins in the kidneys are recognized as the markers of this symbiosis. With the help of modern omix technologies, the development of dysbiosis taking into account patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been proved, which leads to the accumulation of precursors of uremic toxins, a decrease in the production of SCFA, which have nephroprotective properties and play a key role in energy homeostasis. Changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in CKD, an increase in the content of uremic toxins in the intestinal lumen contribute to the appearance of the “leaky” intestinal barrier syndrome, the movement of bacteria from the intestine into the general circulation, the development of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, comorbidity, the progression of CKD, and an increase in mortality. Diets with restriction of protein and potassium quotas, violation of nutritional status lead to the development of dysbiosis in CKD. A decrease in the diet of vegetables and fruit causes the expansion of bacteria producing uricase and urease, which are enzymes in the formation of uremic toxins and reduce the number and variety of bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids. Potential targeted effects on the axis of “intestinal microbiota - chronic kidney disease” are being discussed: the use of a diet enriched in plant fibers, heat-treated, then chilled potatoes and rice as prebiotics (sources of resistant starch), nuts, plant seeds, and pro-, pre-, synbiotics, fecal transplantation. Most of the proposed interventions in the structure and functions of the microbiota are not dangerous, side effects are minimal.

Last modified: 2021-01-14 05:48:15