A clinical case of successful treatment of complete abruption of the trachea from the larynxJournal: I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald (Vol.29, No. 1)
Publication Date: 2021-03-31
Authors : Mikheev M.V. Trushin S.N.;
Page : 117-124
Keywords : trachea; larynx; trauma of trachea; trauma of larynx; rupture of trachea; abruption of trachea;
Tracheobronchial injuries as a consequence of chest blunt trauma are rare. Blunt traumas of the cervical part of the trachea are a rarer pathology presenting a serious diagnostic problem for a clinician. Traumas of the larynx and the trachea account for 40 to 80% of lethality. The trachea's cervical part is vulnerable despite that it is covered with the neck muscles, spine, clavicles, and mandible. In cut/stab wounds, the trachea's cervical part is often damaged together with the adjacent structures. In blunt trauma, under a direct action of a traumatizing agent, the mobile trachea displaces toward the spine, accompanied by damage to the tracheal cartilages, its membranous part, and the soft surrounding tissues with preservation of the integrity of the skin. Tracheal ruptures along the distance up to 1 cm from the cricoid cartilage account for not more than 4% of all tracheal ruptures. A complete tracheal rupture and its abruption from the larynx are extremely rare pathology. Because of severe respiratory disorders, most victims die at the site where their injury occurred. This article presents a clinical case of the successful treatment of patient Z., 41 years of age, with complete tracheal abruption from the larynx. The cause of tracheal damage was blunt neck trauma in a traffic accident. A peculiarity of this clinical case was that the victim arrived at a specialized thoracic surgery unit with a functioning tracheostomy two days after the trauma. Conclusion. Tracheal trauma is a potentially fatal condition. Therefore, early diagnosis of tracheobronchial damage is essential since it permits timely surgical intervention and diminished risk of lethal outcome. When dealing with patients with trauma of the head, neck, and chest with non-corresponding clinical data and the absence of effective recommended standard therapeutic measures, a clinician should become alert and exclude the tracheal and bronchial damage. X-ray computed tomography and fibrotracheobronchoscopy are strongly recommended as reliable methods to diagnose tracheobronchial damages. In a surgical intervention, it is necessary to perform the primary suture on the trachea, avoid preventive tracheostomy, and delay interventions associated with poorer prognosis and a high complication rate.
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