TECHNOLOGIES OF GENETIC MATERIAL USE RESTRICTION: TYPES, MOLECULAR-GENETIC BASE AND ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF THEIR APPLICATIONJournal: Biotechnologia Acta (Vol.14, No. 2)
Publication Date: 2021-04-30
Authors : P. R. Zubik V. V. Motronenko O.B. Besarab;
Page : 19-27
Keywords : terminator technologies; transgenes; intellectual rights; bioethics.;
In order to save money, some farms use the seed obtained in the process of cultivation not only for sale, but also for sowing, which has not found supporters among companies engaged in the production of genetically modified seed. To protect their rights, the latter have created technologies to limit the use of genetic material, which are intended to be used for protection the intellectual rights to reproduce plants with a changed genotype. However, these technologies contain also a commercial component and violate a number of moral principles and international acts. Aim. To describe the types of terminator technologies, their genetic and molecular basis and purpose. To assess a correspondence of their compliance with the international documents and norms. Method. Terminator technologies types, genetic bases and application and their analysis from the standpoint of international norms were studied. To achieve the goal, the methods of fact analysis, comparison and generalization were used. Results. There are two types of terminator technologies (variety- and trait-specific), which are based on the interaction of three genes, which leads to the implementation of certain phenotypic manifestations. It was found that the technologies for limiting the use of genetic material are both contradictory and consistent with a number of international legal acts, which did not make it possible to determine clearly the appropriateness of their use in agriculture. Conclusions. Terminator technologies application is still a controversial fact since they are based on the duality principle: to carry simultaneously a positive and a negative manifestation for people.
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