THE PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE 2 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN RWANDAJournal: International Journal of Advanced Research (Vol.9, No. 10)
Publication Date: 2021-10-13
Authors : A. Niyodusenga T.N. Kiama C. Muhizi; F. Bukachi;
Page : 402-410
Keywords : Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Retinopathy Risk Factors Rwanda;
Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Rwanda. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from January to September 2019 in four hospitals within the Republic of Rwanda. Type 2 diabetic patients were screened for retinopathy. Patients with retinopathy were considered as cases and those without retinopathy as controls. A study sample of 592 participants were enrolled, 66 cases and 526 controls. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed by indirect ophthalmoscopy performed for each eye with a slit-lamp +90D lens. Plasma glucose and Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured by colorimetric enzymatic tests. Albuminuria was measured by quantitative spectrophotometric method. Triglycerides, Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, Urea and Creatinine were assayed by colorimetric methods. A questionnaire was used to assess medical history and demographic status. Data were analyzed by use of SPSS version 20. Statistical analyses were performed by Chi square to show association between nominal and ordinal data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis to select independent variables was performed. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association. Results: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in this study population was 11.2%. Independent risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy were long duration of diabetes, hyperglycemia, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and albuminuria. Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is high and is associated with traditional modifiable risk factors. Early detection and management of diabetes mellitus and these risk factors, combined with good adherence to scheduled eye examination would greatly improve the quality of life of affected patients.
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