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Journal: Fisheries Science of Ukraine (Vol.29, No. 3)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 35-54

Keywords : Keywords: heavy metals; freshwater ecosystems; accumulation in hydroecosystem components.;

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Purpose. To review scientific sources on the distribution of heavy metals among the components of freshwater ecosystems. Findings. The review of the works of many scientists showed that heavy metals are widespread in the biotic and abiotic components of freshwater ecosystems. The article highlights the distribution of heavy metals in water, bottom sediments, natural food base, fish organs and tissues. It has been shown that as a result of global pollution of the ecosystem, the majority of Ukrainian rivers belong to polluted and very polluted. Of special interest are the studies of the distribution of heavy metals in phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos because these components occupy a certain position in fish food chain. The presence of heavy metals in the natural food base showed that, on one hand, it could accumulate heavy metals in large amounts in such a way cleaning the water; and on the other hand, the heavy metals could migrate in the food web and contaminate fish. Ones of objects, which should be given attention when assessing toxicologic pollution, are aquatic plants, in particular phytoplankton. Studies showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in plants occurred first of all by their adsorption on the cellular wall. It explains the maximum adsorption of heavy metals by plants immediately after introduction of heavy metals into their culture. Fish as a rule occupy in the food web of water bodies one of the last places. They actively move in the aquatic environment and accumulating heavy metals at the same time they provide the most integrated and precise estimate of environmental pollution. By analyzing the distribution of heavy metals in fish organs and tissues, depending on their ability to accumulate them, it can be noted that the accumulation is the most intensive in such organs as gills, liver, and kidneys. Usually, their lowest content is observed in muscles that is important for human life because they are the main food component in fish. It was found that among all studied components of aquatic ecosystems, the largest accumulator is phytoplankton and bottom sediments. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study freshwater ecosystems because the data on heavy metal contents in the components of aquatic ecosystems are the foundation of environmental monitoring on the assessment, control, and forecast of the state of hydroecosystems

Last modified: 2015-06-15 15:53:18