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Journal: BEST : International Journal of Humanities , Arts, Medicine and Sciences ( BEST : IJHAMS ) (Vol.5, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 157-166

Keywords : Mukhammas; Turkish Poetry; Five Pointed; Literature; Takhmis;

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The word of “mukhammas” formed from the Arabic verb “khammasa” (to divide into five parts) means “five pointed”, “five-sided”. As this genre develops, we see that during the 18-19th centuries there were some mukhammases which had more couplets. The mukhammases are generally written on the theme of beauty and love, but we can also find those ones written on social, philosophical, historical-patriotism, mode of life, satiric and other themes. All hemistiches in the first couplet of the mukhammas are rhymed, but in the next couplets the first four hemistiches rhyme with eah other and the last hemistich is rhymed with the first hemistich. In the classical Oriental literature the forms of verses are divided into verses consisted of distiches and those ones consisted of couplets.The genres of poetry consisted of distiches include ghazal, qasida, mustazad, qita, nazm and masnavi. The genres of divan literature called musammat that consist of couplets are murabbe, mukhammas, musaddas, musabbe, musamman, mutassa, muashshar, tarbi, takhmis, tashtir, tasdis, tasbi, tasmin, tarkibband, tarjibband and tashir. It should be noted that the forms of poetry called musammat which consist of mentioned couplets came to the Azerbaijani poetry from the Arabic literature. Researchers show that the mukhammas appeared in Arabic literature a bit later, during the Abbasid's reign. The literal sense of takhmis is “divided into five parts” and it is the form of poetry which appears by adding three hemistiches rhymed with the first one to the couplet of each poet's verse (mainly ghazal and qasida). The mukhammases which were dedicated to the old age, different questions of life proved that this genre of verse of Turksh poetry which was developing towards realism was able to reflect various sides of life. A lot of valuable mukhammases written in the 19th century influenced Turkish poetry of the 20th century and mukhammases written during this period.

Last modified: 2017-03-04 19:06:09