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The Role of Apoptotic Factors in Assessing Progression of Periodontal Disease

Journal: International Journal of Dentistry and Oral Science (IJDOS) (Vol.03, No. 09)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Page : 318-325

Keywords : Apoptosis; Periodontal Disease; Caspase-3; Fas; FasL; Gingival Crevicular Fluid.;

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Background: The mechanisms responsible for periodontal disease progression remain unclear. However, recent studies suggest that apoptosis may be one mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of periodontal disease progression. This pilot study is the 3 month follow-up of our published baseline study on the presence of apoptotic factors in serum, saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and their association with periodontal disease severity and activity. Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 37 adult patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and 7 healthy controls. Clinical measurements, including probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographs, were used to evaluate data by sites and to classify patients into healthy, mild, and moderate/severe CP groups. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure apoptosis or DNA fragmentation levels in GCF. Western immunoblotting was used to detect several apoptotic proteins, Fas, FasL, sFasL, and caspase-3 expression and its cleavage products in GCF. Results: At the patient level clinical and apoptotic measurements change minimally over time. At the site level, DNA fragmentation levels increase with increasing PDs at 3 months and baseline. Apoptotic protein expression exhibits increasing trends with increasing PDs at baseline and 3 months. FasL and Active FasL show a high specificity and PPV; low sensitivity and NPV. Caspase-3 products (ProCas35K and Active Cas) show a high PPV with moderate to high specificity; low sensitivity and NPV. ProCas70K shows a high PPV with moderate to high sensitivity; low specificity and NPV. Conclusion: Factors associated with apoptosis show minimal changes in expression in periodontitis groups in comparison to a healthy group over a short time interval (3 months). However, at the site level, apoptotic factors (DNA fragmentation and apoptotic proteins) exhibit significant increases or increasing trends with increasing PDs at any time point examined (baseline or 3 months). Several of these apoptotic factors also exhibit a high sensitivity and high positive predictive value. Thus, apoptotic molecules may be helpful biomarkers of disease status at any point in time.

Last modified: 2017-05-29 20:42:31