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A Retrospective Study of Placenta cretas: A 4 year experience at Modern Government Maternity Hospital, Hyderabad

Journal: International Archives of Integrated Medicine (IAIM) (Vol.4, No. 5)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ;

Page : 31-36

Keywords : Placenta creta; Placenta accrete; Placenta increta; Placenta percreta.;

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Background: Placenta accreta is a severe pregnancy complication and is currently the most common indication for peri partum hysterectomy. It is becoming an increasingly common complication mainly due to the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Placenta accreta is considered a severe pregnancy complication that may be associated with massive and potentially life-threatening intrapartum and postpartum hemorrhage. It has become the leading cause of emergency hysterectomy. Maternal morbidity had been reported to occur in up to 60% and mortality in up to 7% of women with placenta accreta. In addition, the incidence of perinatal complications is also increased mainly due to preterm birth and small for gestational age fetuses. Placenta cretas are defined as abnormal adherences and/or ingrowths of the placenta to the uterine wall. Placenta creta is currently classified according to the depth of abnormal adhesion and invasion of the chorionic villi to the myometrium in the absence/deficiency of decidualization. The incidence of placenta accreta, defined as the abnormal adherence of the placenta to the uterine wall, has been increasing alarmingly in the developed as well as the developing world.. The exact pathogenesis of placenta accreta is unknown. Generally, placenta accreta has been diagnosed on hysterectomy specimens when an area of accretion showed chorionic villi in direct contact with the myometrium and an absence of decidua or in placental basal plate. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of placentas cretas in our hospital and to profile the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: The patients who underwent gravid hysterectomies for placenta creta at Modern Government Maternity Hospital from 2013 to 2016 were included in study. A total of 25 cases during 4 year period were included out of 33063 deliveries. The indications for hysterectomy in majority of cases were heavy bleeding after removal of placenta or inability to remove the placenta manually either partially or totally. The specimens received in pathology department were thoroughly examined grossly and the representative sections were taken from all the specimens after proper fixation which was submitted for tissue processing and H&E stained sections were studied for final diagnosis. Results: Amongst 33093 deliveries which occurred at our institute from January 2013 to December 2016, there were a total of 25 patients with placenta accreta diagnosed by histopathology, which was a rate of 0.7% cases per 1,000 . This total included 2 cases of focal placenta accreta (8%), 10 cases of placenta accreta vera (40%), 9 cases of placenta increta (36%), and 4 cases of placenta percreta (16%). Conclusion: The incidence is considerably higher in women with both a previous caesarean delivery and placenta praevia. Therefore it is important to have a high index of suspicion in such cases. Women with a placenta previa overlying a uterine scar should be evaluated for the potential diagnosis of placenta accreta and arrangements should be made for delivery accordingly to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Last modified: 2017-05-31 16:02:02