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Physiological Effect of Chromium Exposure: A Review

Journal: International Journal of Food Science, Nutrition and Dietetics (IJFS) (Vol.07, No. 00)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 1-11

Keywords : Physiological Effect; Chromium Exposure;

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Human exposure to metals is common due to their wide use in industry, and environmental persistence. The heaviest metal exposures occurred in the workplace or in environmental settings in close proximity to industrial sources. Chromium is one of the heaviest metals. Although chromium relative atomic mass is 51.996g it may found in 0, +2, +3 and +6 forms. Metal chromium (0) is used in steel production, whereas chromium (VI) and chromium (III) are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Divalent chromium (Cr2+) is a strong reductant. Chromium (VI) compounds are more toxic than chromium (III) compounds. Chromium (III) occurs naturally in the environment. The daily intake of chromium from food, air, and water is estimated, respectively, as 60, < 0.2-0.6, and < 4.0μg. Chromium enters the air, water and soil in the chromium(III) and chromium(VI) form through natural processes and human activities. A possible source of chromium exposure to the general public is waste dumps for chromate producing using local air or water pollution. Chromium compounds (chromates, dichromates and chromic acid) pose the most significant health hazards. Generally the health problems that are caused by chromium exposure are:- It can cause allergic reactions, such as skin rash; nose irritations and nosebleeds; Upset stomachs and ulcers; Respiratory problems such as respiratory tract irritant to the nose, throat and lungs; Weakened immune systems; Kidney and liver damage; Alteration of genetic material; Lung cancer and Death. The physiological effect of chromium exposure is not restricted to these effect only; but also, it affects other many physiological parameters including of:- Skin effects; Cardiovascular effects; Hematological effects; Reproductive and developmental effects; Gastrointestinal effects; Ocular effects; Neurological effects and so on.

Last modified: 2017-05-31 17:57:03