Cicero on Constitution, Government and EthicsJournal: International Journal of English, Literature and Social Science (Vol.3, No. 1)
Publication Date: 2018-01-13
Authors : Mubasher Mahdi;
Page : 80-87
Keywords : Ethics; Constitution; Power; State Government.;
Cicero is an important figure of philosophy in the post-Socratean tradition. He not only excels in the art of Rhetoric and oratory, but also in giving judgment on poetry to politics and keenly observing Epicurean theory of pleasure. Like his master Aristotle, his writing style is very lucid and succinct. Various interpretations of Cicero and the translations of his work as “De Republica” or the ‘Republic' clearly place him as a man whose writings are a gem of classics. As soaked and well versed in the Greeko-Roman tradition, he also emphasized the notions of ‘ETHICS' as a larger perspective of formulating not only the state, government and constitution, but also a fundamental and profound aspect of individual's concern as well as of the whole society. His typical oratory and the use of the art of Rhetoric are also only and solely not inspired, but his own. He weaves the concepts about ethics in this very typical style and background. Essentially as a philosopher, assigning the role of philosophy in determining the several social codes, he particularly elaborates the idea of power, duty, justice and war. His philosophy promulgates that ‘ETHICS' are the bases and rightfully define the society and makes it function properly. As he allocates a substantial worth to ‘Ethics', he places them at a higher pulpit and all other areas of social life under this very title. He even sees that state and government and also constitution of any state, are part of this larger study of ‘ETHICS'. The article seeks to view Cicero's thoughts on the above mentioned issues, and how he delineates the nature and function of a well run society, and its laws, keeping it in the frame of ‘Ethics'. It also deals with the Ciceronian concepts and ideas of constitution and government. The article also tries to search parallelism between the Ciceronian maxims and their relevance to today's world of chaos and anarchy.
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