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Soil Fertility Characterization in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga Irrigation Schemes in Kilosa and Mvomero Districts, Morogoro Region, Tanzania

Journal: International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (Vol.3, No. 3)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 1088-1099

Keywords : Calcium; cation exchange capacity; paddy production; fertility constraints; management practices; soil organic matter; survey.;

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Soil samples from three (3) mapping units in Mvumi and four (4) mapping units in Mbogo Komtonga representing two irrigation schemes in Kilosa and Mvomero Districts in eastern Tanzania were collected and analyzed for different mineral elements. Using zigzag sampling techniques, 9 composite samples with three replicates were collected at depth 0 – 30 cm from the delineated pedogeomorphic units at a radius of 20 m around the soil pits. Soil samples from each soil type were bulked, thoroughly mixed, sub sampled to obtain a representative composite sample, packed and sent to Mlingano National Soil Service laboratory (NSS), Tanga, Tanzania for the determination of physical chemical fertility indicators. The data showed overall significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in fertility status in the selected irrigation schemes. The pH of top soils in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga irrigation schemes ranged from 4.4 to 6.3. These were rated as extremely and/or strongly acid to slightly acid. Of the total area studied in Mvumi and Mbogo Komtonga irrigation schemes, 25.5 % is slightly acid, 40.2 % is medium acid, 31.0 % is extremely acid and 3.3 % extremely acid. Similarly, results of organic carbon (OC) determination from the top soil (0 - 30 cm) samples ranged from 26.6 g kg-1 to 51.8 g kg-1. This corresponds to 45.7 g kg-1 to 89.0 g kg-1 SOM in both irrigation schemes. The data showed that % OC in all irrigation schemes was very high in 92.2 % and high in 7.8 % of the surveyed areas. The results show that the top soils of all the surveyed areas in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga irrigation schemes had N in the range of 1.2 to 3.8 mg kg-1, 48.7 % had N below the critical limits whereas 51.3 % were above the same. Available P in both schemes range from 0.68 – 6.53 mg kg-1. Based on the generally accepted threshold P level, all the observed P values in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga respectively were considered to be below the critical range. Cation exchange capacity values in most topsoil in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga irrigation schemes were rated as medium or high to very high. These values range between 27.0 – 54.6 cmol (+) kg-1 and were rated as medium in 25.5 %, high in 35.3 % and very high in 39.2 % of the total surveyed areas. Exchangeable Ca in the topsoil of Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga irrigation schemes ranged from 3.99 – 31.3 cmol (+) kg-1. These were rated as medium in 0.96 %, high in 34.3 % and very high in 70.2 %. Based on the critical limits, MV – Pa3 in Mvumi is likely to be deficient of Ca2+ for most crops as it lies below the proposed critical limits. Exchangeable Mg2+ in the irrigation schemes range from 0.28 – 5.07 cmol (+) kg-1, rated as high to very high. These data suggests that all the MUs except for MV – Pa3 in Mvumi and Mbogo - Komtonga have sufficient Mg2+ supplies for crop growth. Potassium in Mvumi and Mbogo – Komtonga irrigation schemes, range from 0.61 - 2.97 cmol (+) kg-1. These were rated as medium in 64.3 % to very high in 35.7 % of the total area. The data shows that in Mvumi K is unlikely to respond similar to Mbogo – Komtonga. The results of Naexch indicates that the levels of Na+ in the top soils corresponds to 0.15 – 0.47 cmol (+) kg-1 soil in both irrigation schemes. These values were rated as low in 16.4 % and medium in 83.6 % and the corresponding ESP range from 0.5 – 2.2 % in Mvumi considered non-sodic. These results suggest that the surveyed areas have no threat to sodicity problems and the major soil fertility constraints were soil reaction (pH), Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and poor Soil Organic Matter (SOM).

Last modified: 2018-06-30 02:17:06