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A Review of Plant Growth Substances: Their Forms, Structures, Synthesis and Functions

Journal: Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research In Biology (Vol.5, No. 4)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ;

Page : 152-168

Keywords : Phytohormone; Auxins; Cytokinins; Gibberellins; Ethylene; Abscisic acid; Plant Growth Regulators;

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Plant growth substances are compounds, either natural or synthetic that modifies or controls through physiological action, the growth and maturation of plants. If the compound is produced within the plant, it is called a plant hormone or phytohormone. In general, it is accepted that there are five major classes of plant hormones. They are Auxins (IAA), Cytokinins, Gibberellins, Ethylene and Abscisic Acid. However, there are still many plant growth substances that cannot be grouped under these classes, though they also perform similar functions, inhibiting or promoting plant growth. These substances include Brassinosteroids (Brassins), Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Fusicoccin, Batasins, Strigolactones, Growth stimulants (e.g. Hymexazol and Pyripropanol), Defoliants (e.g. Calcium Cyanamide, Dimethipin). Researchers are still working on the biosynthetic pathways of some of these substances. Plant growth substances are very useful in agriculture in both low and high concentrations. They affect seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves and fruits, leaf formation, stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity, and even plant death. Some synthetic regulators are also used as herbicides and pesticides. Therefore, attention should be paid to the production and synthesis of these substances so that they affect plants in a way that would favour yield.

Last modified: 2021-02-03 21:11:14