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Journal: Art of Medicine (Vol.4, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 194-201

Keywords : proctology; incontinence; paraproctitis; biomodel;

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Knowledge of the structural organization of the rectum is the foundation for understanding the etiology, mechanism of action of the disease, techniques for diagnostic manipulations, methods of treatment, including operative intervention. The article analyzes the postulates and revise the previous and current scientific works of morphologists and clinicians. The topography of the rectum is described, its correlation with adjacent bodies, structure, age and gender differences. Due to the modern methods such as virtual spiral colonoscopy, the colorectal and rectosigmoid reflexes have been studied. The role of these components of anal sphincter mechanism and the physiology of defecation have been described. The etiology of pathological conditions such as constipation is taken into account and can occur because of changes in the pelvic diaphragm. An increase in the anorectal angle, insufficiency of sphincter apparatus leads to incontinence and enkopresis. The article describes the opinions of morphologists and clinicians regarding the term "rectum", its's structure and boundaries. Paraproctitis occurs due to structural injury of the rectal wall, such as crypts, lymphoid nodules of the submucosa, etc. These lymphatic nodes react and respond to inflammation. In case of abscesses formation, the submucosa can easily be separated from the other layers and this promotes the spreading of infection to adjacent tissues and organs; perirectal spaces and be complicated by the formation of fistulas. One type of fistula is transsphincteral which is a consequence of spreading inflammation along the course of anal glands. Pigs, in recent times is more common as a bio-model in Vivo Testing. However, despite the enormous success of biomedical researches, the demand has in-creased for new and improved biomodels representing human diseases. This is especially true in case of diseases where a rat`s model does not reflect the phenotype of a human disease. In comparison to rats, pigs are more anatomically and physiologically similar to humans to be used as a biomodel, especially when considering cardiovascular system, the immune system, the respiratory system, skeletal muscles, metabolism, etc. It is emminent to note that the effective and accurate methods of genetic engineering of pigs become benignant, when facilitating the creation of individual animal biomodels that mimic the mechanism of human diseases at a molecular level, such as muscular dystrophy Duchenna, cystic fibrosis. Modern experiments of famous medical institutions in Europe, the USA and Japan demonstrate achievements in the field of xenotransplantation, creating methods to grow organs capable of human transplantation. This appears to be beneficial to patients with chronic renal insufficiency, diabetes, etc. The pig as a biological model is actively used in various medical in-dustry researches, namely medical technologies (instruments, apparatus etc.). Suitability of swine and its uses are worthy prospects in upcoming medical research-es; with subsequent use in clinical research for creating various new methods and applications in approaching the treatment of rectal pathology in humans.

Last modified: 2020-04-08 05:09:25