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Apoptosis in vascular pathology: present and future

Journal: I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald (Vol.28, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 79-87

Keywords : apoptosis; endothelial cells; restenosis; atherosclerotic plaque; smooth muscle cells;

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Apoptosis is recognized as a programmed cell death controlled by genetic mechanisms and required for normal existence of an organism. Its main task is elimination of defective or mutant cells. The particles of dead cells are engulfed by macrophages with no development of inflammatory reaction. Apoptosis actively participates in embryogenesis, cellular homeostasis, elimination of tumor cells, and may be divided to three phases: signal, effector, and degradation. Its main components are cytoplasmic proteases – caspases. Caspases exist in the cytoplasm in inactive condition – in the form pf procaspases. Being activated, they break down to subunits. Proteins of Bcl-2 family are active participants of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. They influence permeability of the outer membrane of mitochondria. Disorders in the mechanisms of apoptosis underlie many diseases including ischemic lesions, autoimmune disorders, malignant neoplasms. The ability to influence survival or death of cell is known to possess enormous therapeutic potential. At present, active research is under way to study signal pathways that control cell cycle and apoptosis. The article discusses the mechanisms participating in death of vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells, potential role of apoptosis in atherosclerosis is also described.

Last modified: 2020-04-10 22:52:13