Research in the ield of environmental problems: an overview of the key resultsJournal: Science Governance and Scientometrics (Vol.13, No. 1)
Publication Date: 2018-03-23
Authors : Tatyana A. Boychenko;
Page : 26-46
Keywords : Environmental problems; global ocean pollution; global warming; solid waste management;
The article reveals the environmental problems facing humanity, such as the pollution of the world's oceans, global warming and the utilization of solid waste, as well as the near-term prospects for solving them. In the context of the ocean pollution, the main causes of the world's waters deterioration are analyzed, which include the entry of heavy metals and pesticides into the seas and radioactive substances disposal. The publications in this field describe the methods of control over the world's oceans, in particular remote sensing, which is possible due to the development of space research. Also the problem of global warming is studied. The particular attention is paid to certain aspects of this problem, such as a decrease in the thickness of the ice cover, change in the level of the World Ocean, and the scientific research on this topic is presented. The article highlights different points of view on the climate change issue. It presents the forecast constructed with the help of the set of global climate models of climate change in Russia. The next problem under consideration is the solid waste disposal. The author makes conclusions on the severity of various types of waste drawing on the results of studies in this area. The article gives complex comparative characteristics of various technologies for neutralization and utilization of solid domestic waste, which are obtained through scientific research conducted in this field. The results of the scientific research on biogas technologies for solid waste processing are considered. The problem of nuclear waste disposal is also adressed. The article suggests the structuring of the mentioned problems on the principle of how it is possible to solve them either at the international level or locally within each country. It concludes that to solve the problems of both categories it is necessary to develop both applied and fundamental sciences.
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