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The impact of decisions of Mining Industrialists Congresses on the Industrial Revolution increasing in Ukraine in the late XIX century

Journal: History of science and technology (Vol.10, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ;

Page : 50-61

Keywords : mining congresses; the South of the Russian Empire; coal; tariffs; exchange committees; the industrial revolution;

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The activity of the mining industry in the South of the Russian Empire, of which Ukraine was part at that time, is analyzed. It is noted that the rapid development of industry in the Russian Empire after the abolition of serfdom in 1861 opened up opportunities for investors to raise capital. Information is given about why Kharkiv became the center of investment life of mine owners, namely its good geographical location. Data on the number of inhabitants of the city and the number of trading institutions are provided. The stages in the formation of the mining industry of the South of the Russian Empire as a driving force for economic development in Ukraine are highlighted.The causes of weak coal sales from the Donbas and the development of the factory industry of Ukraine in the 1860s are analyzed. It is shown how these issues were resolved. In particular, mining congresses were organized to discuss and resolve these issues.It is shown how the decisions of mining congresses influenced the development of the country's economy at the end of the nineteenth century. Examples of issues discussed at these congresses are given. In particular, the congresses discussed – workers, higher and secondary specialized education, mining credit, insurance, the ratio of the mining industry to zemstvos and land taxation of enterprises of the mining industry, taxes, land relations, postal, telegraph and telephone traffic, passenger traffic in the Southern Russia area, duties, ports, marinas, navigable rivers and canals, shipbuilding and merchant shipping, export of mineral fuel abroad, construction of new railways, etc. It should be noted that the central issue discussed at almost all mining congresses was the question of tariffs, and this was not a coincidence, since it directly concerned the markets for industrialists without whom production could not be developed, and with it the intensification of the industrial revolution. Therefore, this problem, in one form or another, has arisen constantly.Information is provided on the number of such congresses, as well as on the creation of a permanent body, the Council of Miners of the South of the Russian Empire. It analyzes the so-called “coal crisis” and the role of major mining companies in the collusion. The monopolization of the market is considered. Emphasis is placed on the customs policy of the tsarist government. Speculation on temporary fuel difficulties is illustrated. It is noted that at the end of the 1890s, there were especially high rates of development of the Donbas coal industry. Special tariffs for the export of Donetsk coal abroad were introduced. Thus, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the mining and monopolization of the mining industry of the south of the Russian Empire were enlarged and monopolized.

Last modified: 2020-06-09 13:28:37