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Prevalence and character of occlusional disorders among young people

Journal: Medicni perspektivi (Vol.25, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 204-214

Keywords : occlusion; disorders; occlusiography; diagnosis; prevalence; young people;

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Dynamic occlusion is the main indicator of the harmonious functioning of the dental apparatus. At the same time, irrational reconstructive treatment can lead to its disorders and, as a result, increased tooth wear, periodontal diseases, dysfunction of masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joints. To date, the computer diagnostic methods allow studying occlusion in dynamics. The aim of the research was to study the prevalence and character of occlusal disorders in young people with intact dentitions, and those whose defects in teeth and dentitions were restored by direct and indirect restorations. 300 persons aged 25-44 years were examined, equally men and women: the first group – 100 persons with intact dentitions; the second one - 100 persons with direct composite restorations located on the occlusal surfaces of the molars; the third one - 100 persons, who had indirect restorations of the crowns of teeth and dentitions of small sizes. Intercuspidation were analyzed using methods of occlusiography, the study of diagnostic models in the articulator, and computer analysis of occlusion. According to the peculiarities of centric and eccentric occlusions, the sequence of formation of the maximum occlusal load vector, the balance of occlusion and the time of closing and opening of dentitions, occlusal disorders were diagnosed in 14.0% of the first group, 35.0% of the second one and 44.0% of the third one. In 100% of patients these disorders were compensated, asymptomatic. The presence of supracontacts in centric occlusion leads to a displacement of the mandible in a forced position in 17.7% of cases. In 83.0% of the examined persons, the occlusion balance was at the level of 50% - 50% and in 13.7% – 60% - 40%. The remaining 3.3% of patients had an occlusive imbalance in the range of 70% - 30%. In this case, significant deviations of the total trajectory vector of the occlusal load were not revealed. The most common occlusion disorders were centric contacts, which are formed as consecutive single, multiple, unilateral and bilateral overload areas, constantly being changed on sliding in dynamic occlusion. Occlusive disorders are characterized by an increase in the time of closure and opening of the dentitions, and the time to reach the maximum number of interdental contacts. The efficiency of occlusiography was only 29.7%, the efficiency of the study of diagnostic models in the articulator was 59.7%, compared to the computer method with 100% of the information value. The widespread use of direct and indirect restorations of teeth and dentitions leads to an increased prevalence of occlusal disorders in young people. Usually, small restorations are integrated into the dentition by grinding their occlusal surface, focusing on patient's comfort on closing the teeth and unhindered movements of the mandible to the sides and forwards. This simplified approach is conformative and incapable of providing optimal functional occlusion. The presence of occlusal imbalance requires appropriate measures for its diagnosis and correction.

Last modified: 2020-07-21 19:51:07