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Journal: Visnyk of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Geology (Vol.90, No. 3)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Page : 71-77

Keywords : gold; Dniester river basin; floodplain terrace;

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The article clarifies the stratigraphic binding and origin of silicon nodules, which served as the main raw material for the manufacture of tools for mammoth hunters of the Mezhyrich Late Paleolithic site. In archaeological publications, these nodules are often mentioned to be confined to the "Vyrzhikovsky layer" (the Albian layer of the Lower Cretaceous), which was formed under continental conditions and consists of sand-clay (kaolin, in particular) deposits. The analysis of the necessary conditions and possible mechanisms for the formation of silicon nodules indicates the erroneousness of such ideas. Most likely, the source of silicon raw materials was the marine deposits of the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous), or, in accordance with the modern stratigraphic division of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence, deposits of the Burim suite (upper Albian – lower Cenomanian). The paleogeographic setting, sedimentological conditions and lithological composition of the "Vyrzhikovsky layer" did not ensure the formation of silicon nodules in it in the form of inclusions. The latter are diagenetic in origin and could only form in the thickness of carbonate rocks, free of clay minerals. The region of Kaniv dislocations was the optimal region from the silicon production point of view, which was determined: firstly, by the tectonic dislocation of the sedimentary sequence, which contributed to the removal of deposits containing silicon nodules in the thickness of younger rocks; secondly,the erosion activity of temporary streams, which brought these deposits to the level of the denudation cut-off. The most convenient place for collecting flints was not the outcrop of bedrock in ravines but the cones of their removal, which overlook the floodplains of the Dnipro and Ros'. The possibility of collecting flint in the immediate vicinity of the Mezhirich site, in the ravines and gullies between the Ros and Rosava rivers, does not find confirmation, since the chalk deposits here lie much lower than the local erosion base and are not exposed by ravines. Therefore, the leading role in the formation of the raw material supply of the Late Paleolithic site of Mezhirich was played by the region adjacent to the Kaniv mountains of the alluvial-proluvial plain.Despite long-term geological study of the Dniester River basin, we still have no clear evidences about gold-bearing potentiality of this area as well as origin of gold. The leading role of geological, geochemical and mineralogical criteria is proved for defining the prospects of substantial gold deposits finding within the Dniester river basin. Gold was found here in the crystalline basement and in the sedimentary cover rocks. Study of mineralogy and lithology of the terraces above the flood-plain and typomorphic peculiarities of native gold shows that palaeogeographic conditions and alimentation zones of debris vary at the different tectonic stages of this area development. Gold-bearing potential of the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments in the Dniester River basin is related to the Pliocene (VI-IX terraces above the flood-plain) and Quaternary (I-V terraces above the flood-plain) terraces complex of the Dniester river, as well as this river and its inflows recent alluvia.

Last modified: 2021-02-22 17:46:58