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Anti-Periodontopathic Antibody Response in Chronic HIV Infection

Journal: Journal of HIV and AIDS (Vol.6, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 1-5

Keywords : HIV; Periodontopathic; Bacteria; Antibody; Oral; Microbiota;

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Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection may alter antibody responses against periodontopathic bacteria, increasing the susceptibility for gingival and periodontal disorders in HIV-infected individuals. We describe the oral health of HIV-infected individuals receiving stable Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and determine their association with serum anti-periodontopathic bacteria antibody level. Methods: HIV-infected individuals on at least three months of stable ART were enrolled and underwent routine dental and gingival examination including assessment for dental carries along with periodontal, gingival, and plaque measurements. Antibody to periodontal bacteria was determined by using the immunoassay “checkerboard immunoblotting” to assess serum IgG or IgM antibodies to periodontal organisms. Results: Forty HIV-infected subjects were enrolled: 92.5% males, 72.5% Caucasian, with median CD4 count of 437.6 cells/mL. 75% of our study participants had an undetectable HIV viral load. Ten percent (4/40) of our population were diagnosed with CDC periodontitis scores of 2 and higher while 37.5% (15/40) had gingivitis determined by the gingival score of 2 or higher. Higher anti-Campylobacter rectus, Capnocytophaga ochracea, and Peptostreptococcus micros antibody levels were significantly associated with higher gingivitis scores (all p values<0.05). Conclusions: A relationship was seen between high gingival score and high levels of antibodies against three periodontopathic bacteria that have been associated with clinical disease. We speculated that HIV-associated oral microbiota imbalance may result in a higher risk of gingival and dental pathology development in this population.

Last modified: 2021-02-25 15:55:54