Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in HIV (+) PersonsJournal: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (Vol.8, No. 10)
Publication Date: 2020-10-01
Authors : Nikolay Todorov Vatev;
Page : 309-313
Keywords : HIV (+) persons; vaccine-preventable diseases; immune prophylaxis.;
The article discusses the risk for the origin of vaccine-preventable diseases in HIV (+) people and the possibilities for their prevention. HIV (+) people are with 4-8 times greater risk to be infected with influenza and 1.5 times higher to die. They belong to a risk group of 35-100 times possibility to acquire invasive pneumococcal disease in comparison with non-infected people. The risk for origin of invasive meningococcal disease for them is 5-13 times greater. There is significantly higher risk for HIV (+) persons to be infected with pertussis, hepatitis A, В and С and also human papilloma virus infection. That is why the HIV-infected have to be immunized with the vaccines for which they have not contraindications. Inactivated, polysaccharide, recombinant vaccines and toxoids may be administered to HIV (+) patients: inactivated poliomyelitis; against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (inactivated whole cell or acellular); only diphtheria and tetanus; tetanus toxoid; polysaccharide against typhoid fever; haemophilus influenza type B; hepatitis A and B; influenza; meningococcal and pneumococcal infections. Passive immune prophylaxis may also be applied to HIV (+): with human normal immune globulin—after contact with infected people from hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rubella, meningococcal infection; or with specific hepatitis B immune globulin, immune globulin against rabies and immune globulin for varicella-zoster virus. Live vaccines have not to be applied to HIV-infected: BCG, MMR, OPV, Vivotif, rotavirus, varicella and yellow fever. In conclusion, as soon as possible after the diagnosis of HIV infection is confirmed, we have to check the immune status of this person for the routine immunizations. The necessary immunizations have to be done if they lack. And then it is appropriate to do the recommended vaccines.
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