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Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Overview

Journal: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) (Vol.9, No. 5)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 1517-1522

Keywords : Autism spectrum disorder; autism; behaviors; environmental factors; genetic factors; brain development; developmental history; ASD patients; treatment;

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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes neurodevelopmental disorders which show characteristic lack of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication. The distinguishing social behaviors include an avoidance of eye contact, issues with emotional control or issues in understanding the emotions of others, and a limitation of range of activities and interests. It is a complex multi factorial disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and environmental factors and that genetic susceptibility interacts with environmental factors in ASD etiology. Neuroimaging studies have led to the understanding of structural and functional abnormalities of the brain development in patients with ASD, pathological changes that occur in brain of patients with ASD and therefore the genetic bases of the brain development. The presentation and severity of symptoms significantly vary among individuals with ASD. It is important to identify the red flags and various signs as early as possible so as to ensure early interventions. The diagnosis of ASD is clinical based on the symptomatology, developmental history and behavior. The treatments include behavior and communication Approaches, dietary approaches, medication. Clinicians can make a difference by providing timely and individualized interventions. They play a crucial role in diagnosing ASDs consistent with clinical criteria through a comprehensive evaluation that has a thorough medical and developmental history, behavioral and play observations, and a review of standardized cognitive and language evaluations. Further research in proper investigations of etiologies and appropriate behavioral and educational interventions is needed to broaden the horizons on the understanding of ASD.

Last modified: 2021-06-28 17:06:43