Etiology of Anemia in under 5 Years Old Age ChildrenJournal: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) (Vol.9, No. 10)
Publication Date: 2020-10-05
Authors : Basma Dawood Hanoon;
Page : 1077-1079
Keywords : Etiology; Anemia; Children;
Anemia is a worldwide public health problem that affects both developed and developing countries. The groups most affected are pregnant women, children under the age of five years and, to a lesser extent, school-age children. In the developing world, 46-66 % of children less than five years of age are affected. There are several kinds of anemia, produced by a variety of underlying causes. Based on morphology of red blood cells, hematologists tend to categorize anemia as microcytic, macrocytic or normocytic. Causes of anemia can be multifactorial and often coincide, but the primary cause is a diet with inadequate iron sources. Iron deficiency is indicated as the most common cause of anemia in under-five children with a smaller proportion due to other micronutrient deficiency such as folate, Vitamin B126. Iron is an essential mineral in basic neural processes such as myelination, production of neurotransmitters, and energy metabolism. Iron deficiency anaemia results from a variety of causes including inadequate iron intake, high physiologic demands in early childhood and iron losses from parasitic infections, especially malaria, are important factors contributing to the high prevalence of anaemia in many populations. The role of iron deficiency in cognitive impairment and psychomotor development is also well recognized. Poor school performance and work capacity in later years could result from iron deficiency anemia.
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