Underemployment Conditions in Terms of Working Hours and Income at Badung RegencyJournal: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) (Vol.7, No. 7)
Publication Date: 2018-07-05
Authors : A A I N Marhaeni; Ni Nyoman Yuliarmi; Luh Putu Aswitari;
Page : 923-930
Keywords : underemployment; working hours; income; education;
Hauser (1975) states that there are 3 types of underemployment in terms of working hours, income, and mismatch (mismatch between qualification/education and work owned). High unemployment may also reflect the poverty conditions of the community, therefore to solve underemployment is as important as to solve open unemployment. The purpose of this study are to analyze 1). The condition of underemployment rate in terms of working hours and income in agriculture, industry and services sector in Badung Regency 2). The condition of the underemployment rate in terms of working hours and income at low, middle, and tertiary education level 3). The condition of underemployment rate in terms of working hours and income in formal and informal sector 4). The condition of underemployment rate in terms of working hours and income for male and female workers in Badung Regency, 5) the difference of income between underemployed and fully employed workers according to sectors, education, employment status, and sex in Badung regency. This research will be conducted in Badung Regency by taking 90 samples of research that will be distributed each of 30 samples in agriculture, industry, and services sector. Sources of data used there are 2 primary sources/primary data and secondary sources / secondary data. Samples will be distributed in all sub-districts in Badung Regency according to the proportion of workers working in all three sectors. The sampling technique used was accidental sampling for respondents and purphosive sampling for informants. Methods of data collection used there are 3, observation, interview, and in-depth interview. Data analysis techniques used are descriptive statistics such as mean, median, mode, and inferential statistic ie Analysis of Varian (ANOVA). The results showed that 1). The highest rate of underemployment both in terms of working hours and income is in the agricultural sector, and the lowest in the industrial sector, 2). The highest rate of underemployment both in terms of working hours and income is found in the respondents who are poorly educated, even for higher education, none are classified as unemployed in terms of working hours, 3). The rate of underemployment is higher in the informal sector than in the formal sector, either by income or working hours, 4). Women are categorized as underemployed both in terms of working hours and higher incomes than men, (5) The difference in income significantly occurred in the respondents who were classified as underemployed with full employed worker on all the characteristics. Suggestions is education is the most important variable in reducing the percentage of respondents who are classified as underemployed both in terms of working hours and income. Thus the provision of motivation to the community should continue to be improved and the provision of scholarships into programs that can be done to achieve these goals.
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