FEATURES OF PEDIATRIC MULTIPLE SCLEROSISJournal: Journal of the Grodno State Medical University (Vol.19, No. 3)
Publication Date: 2021-07-15
Authors : Е. V. Onegin; M. D. Semashko; V. P. Vdovichenko;
Page : 270-273
Keywords : pediatric multiple sclerosis; clinically isolated syndrome;
Background. Demyelinating diseases are one of the most pressing and debatable problems in neurology. Despite the emergence of improved diagnostic criteria and new directions in therapy, multiple sclerosis is a leading cause of disability among young patients. According to epidemiological studies, about 3 million people worldwide suffer from multiple sclerosis. At the same time, from 2.7 to 10.5% of all cases of multiple sclerosis worldwide are observed in children under the age of 18, with a tendency towards an increase in the disease incidence. Purpose. To analyze the results of scientific studies of cases of childhood multiple sclerosis. Material and methods. A qualitative analysis of Russian-language and English-language literature sources containing data on cases of childhood multiple sclerosis has been carried out. Results. It has been established that the incidence of multiple sclerosis among pediatric patients is significantly lower in comparison with the adult population. The clinical picture is polymorphic and, in some cases, atypical. Conclusions. Current understanding of the term "pediatric multiple sclerosis" indicates a narrow window of onset with cognitive decline different from adults, combined with a higher number of relapses and more inflammatory lesions compared to adult multiple sclerosis. The polymorphic clinical picture and atypical manifestations of multiple sclerosis in childhood, as well as the debut in the form of a clinically isolated syndrome, can complicate early differential diagnosis and increase the interval from the onset of the disease to the administration of the necessary pharmacotherapy, which can reduce the severity of the course of the disease, the frequency of relapses and increase the interval "debut - disability".
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