Gene-environment interaction in psychopathologies: stress-related genetic and epigenetic influencesJournal: Klinik Psikoloji Dergisi (Vol.5, No. 3)
Publication Date: 2021-12-26
Authors : Esra Zıvralı Yarar;
Page : 275-288
Keywords : psychopathology; stress; gene-environment interaction; epigenetics;
It has long been known that stressful life events are related to various psychological problems. The relationship between stress and psychiatric disorders has been further recognized due to reports of studies investigating interactions between biological and environmental factors. This paper is about the effect of stress-related environmental factors on psychopathologies through relevant biological mechanisms, such as genetic and epigenetic processes, in human body. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation profiles of the genes playing role in the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which are essential for mental health and stress regulation, shed light upon gene-environment interactions in psychopathologies. Research results showing an association between early/late adversities and psychiatric problems through biological mechanisms deserve note. Relationships between genes related to stress regulation, such as CRHR1, FKBP5, CRHBP, SLC6A4, NR3C1, OXTR and BDNF, and various psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, suicide, anxiety, bipolar disorder, personality disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder) have been suggested in an interaction with environmental factors. The number of studies reporting similar associations for therapeutic approaches to these disorders is also on the increase. Possible limitations when interpreting findings and suggestions for future research have also been discussed.
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