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Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance in the Ashaiman Municipality of the Greater Accra Region in Ghana

Journal: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) (Vol.10, No. 12)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ;

Page : 831-839

Keywords : Vaccine Knowledge; Vaccine Acceptance; Vaccine Hesitancy; COVID-19;

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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all countries of the world and resulted in more than one million deaths worldwide and as of2nd May 2021, about 779 deaths were recorded in Ghana. With the economic disruption that characterized the advent of this pandemic and the fear of subsequent waves, every country was considering vaccines as the best hope against the pandemic. As COVID-19 vaccines have been developed, one of the questions being asked is what determines its acceptance by the world with regards to our experience, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and understanding of vaccines. Methodology: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study conducted in the Ashaiman Municipality of Ghana between January and March 2021 among 267 randomly selected participants aged 18 years and above. Analysis was done using Fisher?s Exact estimation and Multivariate logistic regression models with a p-value less than 0.05 as the threshold for statistical significance respectively. Results: Of the 267 study participants, 155 (58.05%) reported they would not accept the COVID-19 vaccine even if it was available for uptake. Female study respondents were more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine [OR = 2.4, 95%CI=1.33-4.48] compared to their male counterparts. Study participants who would accept the COVID-19 vaccine [OR=16.4, 95%CI=6.41-41.76] were also highly likely to do so as soon as the vaccine is approved and is available compared to their counterparts who would not accept the vaccine. Those who indicated their trust in the government for a good vaccine also showed a high likelihood of accepting the COVID-19 vaccine [OR=6.4, 95%CI=3.08-13.20] compared to their counterparts who would not accept the COVID-19 vaccine. More study participants who had adequate prior knowledge about vaccines 224 (83.90%) would accept the COVID-19 vaccine compared to the remaining 43 (16.10%) who would accept the vaccine anyway but do not have good knowledge about vaccines. Again, a good number of study participants 180 (67.42%) who had been vaccinated in the past would readily accept the COVID-19 vaccine than their remaining 87 (32.58%) counterparts who had no vaccines in the past. Those who disagreed that COVID-19 was deadly had a lower likelihood [OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.26-2.43] to accept the COVID-19 vaccine compared to the base group who agreed that COVID-19 is a deadly disease. Conclusion: Gender, ethnicity, how soon vaccines are made available, adequate knowledge about COVID-19 and vaccines, past vaccine uptake, trust in government, perceived risk of COVID-19, trust in vaccines as a remedy for the spread of COVID-19, among others were found to be significant determinants of the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Earlier and adequate education on vaccination should be created to influence vaccine uptake. Government, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders in health should work to earn the trust of people as trust issues affect vaccine uptake.

Last modified: 2022-02-15 18:57:28