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A Systematic Review of the Trace Element Concentrations in the Prostate Fluid of Normal Gland | Biomedgrid

Journal: American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research (Vol.6, No. 6)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ;

Page : 497-505

Keywords : Prostate; Prostatic fluid; Biomarkers; Trace elements; Bromine; Cadmium; Coper; Iron; Rubidium; Strontium; Zinc;

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Abstract

Background: The prostate gland is subject to various disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of these diseases are not well understood. Moreover, despite technological advancements, the differential diagnostics of prostate disorders has become progressively more complex and controversial. It was suggested that the measurement of Trace Elements (TEs) levels in Expressed Prostatic Fluid (EPF) may be useful as a biomarker. This suggestion promoted more detailed studies of the TEs concentrations in the EPF of healthy subjects. Objective: The present study evaluated by systematic analysis the published data for concentration of TEs analyzed in EPF of normal gland. Methods: The present systematic analysis included 1885 studies, all of which were published in the years from 1942 to 2019 and selected by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, ELSEVIER-EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science. The articles were analyzed and “Median of Means” and “Range of Means” were used to examine heterogeneity of TE concentrations in EPF of apparently healthy men. The objective analysis was performed on data from the 26 studies, with about 900 subjects. Results: The median of concentration means for such TEs as Bromine (Br), Cadmium (Cd), Coper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Rubidium (Rb), Strontium (Sr), and Zinc (Zn) in EPF of apparently healthy men were (mg/L): Br-2.86, Cd-0.146, Cu-0.416, Fe-8.3, Rb-1.13, Sr-1.22, and Zn-501. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated that the human prostatic secretion is a target fluid of human body for Cd, Fe, Sr, and Zn. Because of small sample size and high data heterogeneity, we recommend other primary studies. Keywords: Prostate; Prostatic fluid; Biomarkers; Trace elements; Bromine; Cadmium; Coper; Iron; Rubidium; Strontium; Zinc Abbreviations: PSA: Prostate-specific antigen; Zn : Zinc; Rb: Rubidium; TE: Trace Element; EPF : Expressed Prostatic Fluid; Cd : Cadmium; Cu : Coper; Fe : Iron; Sr : Strontium; FES : Flame Emission Spectrophotometry; AAS : Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry; EDXRF : Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent Microanalysis Introduction

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