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White, beige and brown adipose tissue: structure, function, specific features and possibility formation and divergence in pigs

Journal: "Foods and Raw materials" Journal (Vol.10, No. 1)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ;

Page : 10-18

Keywords : Fat; beige and brown adipocytes; uncoupling protein; thermogenesis; adipocyte; animal health; livestock;

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Introduction. Traditionally, mammalian adipose tissue is divided into white (white adipose tissue – WAT) and brown (brown adipose tissue – BAT). While the functions of WAT are well known as the triglyceride depot, the role of BAT in mammalian physiology has been under close investigation. The first description of the role of BAT in maintaining thermogenesis dates back to 1961. This article offers a review of structural and functional specificity of white, beige and brown adipose tissue. Results and discussion. The differences and descriptions of adipocytes and their impact on the maintenance of the main functions of the mammalian body are described in this manuscript. In particular, thermogenesis, stress response, obesity, type II diabetes. In addition to WAT and BAT, an intermediate form was also detected in the body – beige fat (BeAT or Brite). The opposite opinions regarding the presence of three types of adipose tissue in the human and animal bodies are presented. Studies on the identification of uncoupling proteins 1 and 3 and their role in the transformation of white fat into beige/brown are considered. Basically, the data on the factors of endogenous and exogenous nature on their formation are given on the example of the human body. Conclusion. With an abundance of publications on the keywords: “white, brown fat”, these studies, in the overwhelming majority, are devoted to the role of these fats in the formation of human thermogenesis, the assessment of the impact on obesity. Pigs have also been suggested to lack functional BAT, which is a major cause of neonatal death in the swine industry, therefore the focus on investigating role of different types of adipose tissue in pigs seems very promising in order to understand whether there is a compensating mechanism of thermogenesis.

Last modified: 2022-04-11 21:59:10