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Differential Approach to Surgical and Endovascular Treatments of Pulmonary Thromboembolism in Patients with Neurological and Neurosurgical Problems

Journal: I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald (Vol.30, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

Page : 223-232

Keywords : pulmonary thromboembolism; PE; embolectomy; thrombus destruction;

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INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is one of the most threatening complications in patients with neurological and neurosurgical problems. The high epidemiological threshold values and mortality in the considered group of patients attracted the interest of researchers in the methods of early diagnosis and selection of methods of reperfusion of the pulmonary arterial bed. AIM: To analyze clinical and hemodynamic results of the surgical and endovascular treatment of PE of the high and intermediate–high risks in the group of patients with neurological and neurosurgical problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved 24 patients with PE of high and intermediate — high-risks. The first group involved seven patients with neurosurgical problems who underwent thromboembolectomy from the main and lobular branches of the pulmonary artery in conditions of parallel perfusion of the artificial circulation. The duration of perfusion was 26.0 ± 7.4 min. The second group consisted of 17 patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke, in whom endovascular mechanical fragmentation of thromboemboli was performed using a modified Pig-Tail type catheter introduced by puncture through the subclavian or jugular vein. The first clinical manifestations of PE appeared 4.78 ± 2.02 days after the neurosurgical intervention and 8.45 ± 2.6 days after the onset of stroke. The initial systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery was 67.24 ± 5.15 mm Hg in the first group and 70.53 ± 4.53 mm Hg in the second group. Both groups had American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status IV and V classes of surgical risk and Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index class V (130–174 points). RESULTS: The hospital survival rates were 100% and 82.36% in the first and second groups, respectively (three lethal cases due to progressing right-ventricular failure in the first 18 h after the procedure). On discharge, signs of reverse remodeling of the right heart chambers and reduction of the mean and systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery to 21 ± 2.16 and 31 ± 4.12 mm Hg, respectively, were noted in the first group and to 46 ± 5.23 and 57 ± 3.16 mm Hg, respectively, in the second group. CONCLUSION: Surgical treatment of PE is effective and safe with predictable results. Endovascular catheter — induced destruction of the thromboembolus substrate is an alternative to the surgical treatment of patients with a high-risk of open surgery and absolute contraindications for thrombolytic therapy.

Last modified: 2023-04-03 22:55:58