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Точкові функціонально-семантичні зсуви в контексті вивчення динаміки мовно-національної картини світу

Journal: Movoznavstvo (Vol.2023, No. 4)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 26-40

Keywords : language world-image; nomination mechanisms; language dynamics; functional-semantic shift; Ukrainian media discourse;

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The paper deals with the study of nomination mechanisms in active language processes. The material of the study embodies the texts of the Ukrainian media discourse (the period of the end of the 20th — the early 21st century), which is considered as a communicative environment, where the tendency to nominative shifts is clearly expressed. The research attempts to outline the functional-semantic shifts within the framework of a point segment represented by functioning and semantics of a pair of lexemes, one of which acquires functional activity at the expense of the other and as a means of naming it partially covers its semantic space. In the framework of research, two such segments, formed by the functioning of lexemes ukr. vidomyi «well-known» — ukr. znakovyi «significant» and ukr. kolektyv «staff» — ukr. komanda «team» are considered. Modern media resources fix the expansion of the functioning of units znakovyi and komanda, which are widely used in the contexts that are typical, respectively, for units vidomyi and kolektyv. It is shown that the main semantic characteristics of the lexeme vidomyi in its use as part of the nomination of a person, which distinguish it from the lexeme znakovyi, are: 1) the connection with the epistemic modality, the domain of knowedge and memory; 2) correlation with the personal experience and the field of the real activity of a person; 3) the relative (vs absolute) character of the assessment. The semantic structure of the lexeme znakovyi includes a component of selective evaluation dealing with the operation of «pointing-out» of one object from a set (а class of objects) on the basis of its subjective valorization. The essential characteristic of the lexeme znakovyi is the connection of its meaning with the semiotic sphere and relations of hierarchical type. Dynamic processes in this segment of the language world-image are determined by a semantic shift with a tendency towards the predominance of subjective meanings and the intention to postulate new hierarchical relationships in the social space. Consideration of the second segment (kolektyv — komanda) from the point of view of the denotation of words and modeling the relationship «leader — collective» in the structure of their meaning gave grounds for the conclusion that the semantics of these two words reflects knowledge about different models of social interaction and social organization, which coexist in modern society. The nominative choice here is explained by the action of factors related to the type of discourse, social priorities and intentions in text formation

Last modified: 2023-09-18 17:31:10