SYSTEM OF REGIONAL PLANNING IN JAPANJournal: Academic Bulletin "Economics and Region" (Vol.4, No. 47)
Publication Date: 2014-07-02
Authors : Azarova Anna Volodymyrivna;
Page : 56-61
Keywords : economic system; regional planning; detailed planning;
The absence of territorial development planning system in Ukraine, which had been destroyed in the 90-s, has dramatized differentiation in the levels of socio-economic development of regions, dissatisfaction of society and has sharpen contradictions at all levels of state administration. In this regard, a modern system of territorial development planning is necessary to be build. It’s become topical to study world experience of using the regional (territorial) planning. Regional planning in different ways is used in most countries, but only some developed countries use the so-called detailed form. The detailed form of the regional planning is defined as reflecting the regional components in the national plan. Japanese experience of using the detailed form of regional planning may be used as an example. The purpose of this paper is summarizing the experience of regional planning in Japan. The Japanese system of regional planning had blossomed in the post-war years, when it faced with the necessity to solve the problem of the population overconcentration in the central industrial areas, and weak back lands development. Regional planning in Japan is represented by a system of plans (programs) for development. The comprehensive program of territorial development is accepted by the headquarters of public authorities, it includes all the 10 economic regions of Japan and their regional components. These plans include the goals, objectives, means of implementation, list of economic indicators, sources of financing for developing prefectures in general and specific activities of individual economy branches. Such plans are the basis for the implementation of activities in the public sector. The plans for individual problem regions are developed in addition to the comprehensive program of the territorial developing. In 2005, after insufficient transformation, new plans of forming the state territory were replaced with the comprehensive program of territorial development. New plans are intended to use both the previous plans, which were created by the state leadership and the new plans, prepared by the local authorities, that is, the system of two-level planning. The new plans indicate a basic course that is associated with the formation of the territory of the state in a particular region, as well as specific measures, which strategically must be carried out in the region with a broad view, which is superior to the border of a single prefecture. The structure of plans, planning period, etc., may be different for different prefectures. In Japan, the main sources of funding for regional plans are the central government grants to the local authorities; tax incentives and accelerated amortization for businesses, with investing into the economy of designated areas; loans of public financial institutions. There are also specific government facilities which are subsidizing various regional activities: Regional Development Corporation of Japan, the credit institutions of Hokkaido, Tohoku, Japan Development Bank. Thus, one of the best examples of the detailed form of regional planning is the Japanese one. The system of regional planning in Japan has certain merits: involvement of all market agents into the planning stage; planning flexibility that allows taking into account the market conditions changes; two-level planning nature, that allows the proper detecting of the regions’ needs. These merits could be a guideline to be studied and used in other countries, including Ukraine.
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