Performance Study of Adaptive Routing Algorithm using Swarm IntelligenceJournal: International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science (IRJAES) (Vol.1, No. 4)
Publication Date: 2016-10-09
Authors : K. Kumaravel; M. Sengaliappan;
Page : 176-179
Keywords : Boids; stigmergy; network routing protocols; swarm intelligence; ant net quality of services.;
Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept is employed in work on artificial intelligence. The expression was introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, in the context of cellular robotic systems. SI systems consist typically of a population of simple agents or boids interacting locally with one another and with their environment. The inspiration often comes from nature, especially biological systems. The agents follow very simple rules, and although there is no centralized control structure dictating how individual agents should behave, local, and to a certain degree random, interactions between such agents lead to the emergence of "intelligent" global behavior, unknown to the individual agents. Examples in natural systems of SI include ant colonies, bird flocking, animal herding, bacterial growth, fish schooling and microbial intelligence. The application of swarm principles to robots is called swarm robotics, while 'swarm intelligence' refers to the more general set of algorithms. 'Swarm prediction' has been used in the context of forecasting problems. In the past few years there has been a lot of research on the application of swarm intelligence to the problem of adaptive routing in telecommunications networks. A large number of algorithms have been proposed for different types of networks, including wired networks and wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper we give an overview of this research area. We address both the principles underlying the research and the practical applications that have been proposed. We start by giving a detailed description of the challenges in this problem domain, and we investigate how swarm intelligence can be used to address them. We identify typical building blocks of swarm intelligence systems and we show how they are used to solve routing problems. Then, we present Ant Colony Routing, a general framework in which most swarm intelligence routing algorithms can be placed. After that, we give an extensive overview of existing algorithms, discussing for each of them their contributions and their relative place in this research area. We conclude with an overview of future research directions that we consider important for the further development of this field.
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