Human Wildlife Conflicts to communities surrounding Mikumi National Parks in Tanzania: A case of selected villagesJournal: International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology (Vol.2, No. 4)
Publication Date: 2017-07-02
Authors : Gabriel Mayengo; Fadhili Bwagalilo; Venance E. Kalumanga;
Page : 1777-1784
Keywords : Human; Wildlife; Conflicts; National Park and village.;
Human wildlife interaction is not a new phenomenon, it has existed since the beginning of humankind, it is evidenced by the fact that, many national parks are surrounded by human residents. The interaction between human and wildlife is of different nature depending on the culture of the surrounding human as well as wildlife community. For decade's human wildlife conflicts has been a great conservation challenge due to increased human population, international trade and change of policies. The challenge is more significant in a sense that it negatively affects both human and wildlife sustainability. Therefore a study was conducted to villages surrounding Mikumi national Park to assess reasons for conflicts between human and wildlife and account how communities prevent wild animals to destructs their agriculture products. Three villages were selected for study (Doma, Maharaka and Mkata, all villages surrounds Mikumi National Park Ecosystems. Different methodology includes: - Field observation, Household survey, Field interview, In-depth interview and Ethnography study were used. However descriptive analysis and non parametric test were performed by using SPSS 16 versions and Kruskal-wallis test respectively to compute mean, standard error, percentages and differences of wildlife consumption. Results suggests that, there is a gradual increase of human-wildlife conflicts which lead to loss of people's lives, as well as their livelihoods such as farms and farms product. Statistically results depicted that the average size of the farm affected at Doma, Maharaka and Mkata villages were 3.8 ± 0.1, 2.0 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.1 acres respectively, while at Mkata village 32 goats, 24 sheep and 76 cattle were reported to be killed by wild carnivores. In other way conflicts may result to poaching activities which may threaten the existence of huge herbivores such as Elephants and Rhinoceros. Apart from that, conflicts may lead to poor performances of tourism industry in the country. Research recommends that more efforts should be taken by the government and other stakeholders to prevent conflicts around all national parks so as to create good and conducive environment for human being life and wildlife in order to allow good performance of tourism industry for economic development of the country.
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