CANINE IMMUNE-MEDIATED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA – BRIEF REVIEWJournal: TRADITION AND MODERNITY IN VETERINARY MEDICINE (Vol.3, No. 1)
Publication Date: 2018-01-21
Authors : Iliyan Manev Victoria Marincheva;
Page : 59-64
Keywords : immune-mediated; anemia; canine; hemolysis; immunosuppressive drugs.;
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a common autoimmune disorder in dogs. It affects bothsexes but occurs more often in female, middle-aged animals. IMHA can be idiopathic (primary) or secondaryto infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. There is an acute regenerative anemia with accompanyinghypoxia. Destruction of erythrocytes can be intravascular (as a result of complement system activation) orextravascular (removal of antibody-coated red blood cells by the macrophages in the liver and spleen). Diagnosisis based on the presence of anemia, in vitro autoagglutination, positive direct antiglobulin test (Coomb`stest), detection of spherocytes. It is crucial to exclude possible secondary causes. The treatment protocol aimsto cease cell destruction by high doses of corticosteroids, aggressive supportive care and long-term applicationof immunosuppressive drug combinations. Still lethality is high because of complications (pulmonary thromboembolism,DIC), medication resistance, relapses.
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