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Pharmaceutical Residues in the Aquatic Environment: Recent Studies in Estonia| Biomed Grid

Journal: American Journal of Biomedical Science & Research (Vol.3, No. 5)

Publication Date:

Authors : ; ;

Page : 465-467

Keywords : Biomedical Science and Research Journals; biomedical open access journals; biomedical journal impact factor; Biomed Grid;

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Ecotoxicological impacts of pharmaceuticals in the environment were first paid attention to in the 1990-ies, when a massive death of the bird species Gyps africanus or white-backed vulture occurred in Pakistan and India. This was found to be caused by accumulation of diclofenac in their kidneys. These residues originated from veterinary treatment of free-range livestock that the birds had been eating Oaks et al. [1]. There are more than 3000 different active ingredients in use for both veterinary and human medicine, including analgesics, contraceptives, antibiotics, neuroactive compounds, beta blockers, lipid regulators and their metabolites. Carlsson [2] who has assessed the ecotoxicological effects of 27 different pharmaceuticals, has assessed, that the most harmful for the environment are diclofenac, ethinylestradiol, ibuprofen, metoprolol, norethisterone, oestriol and oxazepam. Li [3] added sulfamethoxazole into this list. There are various pathways for the medicine residues to fall into the environment. Part of the consumed medicaments are excreted by humans, discharged into wastewater treatment plants, accumulated in the sludge and, if the latter is used in greening or even agriculture, they may accumulate in plants, infiltrate into soil and ground water.

Last modified: 2019-07-12 15:08:28