LEAD POISONING IN CHILDREN: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF HOSPITALIZED IRAQI CHILDREN WITH LEAD POISONINGJournal: International Journal of Advanced Research (Vol.7, No. 7)
Publication Date: 2019-07-05
Authors : Azhar Muzhir Suhail; Mahjoob Al-Nidawi;
Page : 549-565
Keywords : Lead poisoning Industrial environment and Inorganic lead.;
Background: Lead is one of the oldest perhaps most ubiquitous of neurotoxic substances although some of toxic effects of lead were known in earlier times. Aim of study: To evaluate the extent of lead poisoning as a public health problem and to determine the main sources of lead in the environment the patients belong to & the risk factors increasing the potential of poisoning in Iraqi children. Material and Method: retrospective study on 56 cases of acute of lead poisoning had been the admitted to AL-MANSUR children teaching hospital during the period from March 1993 to March 2003. For children age range from 2 months to 7 years, 40 cases blow 2 years, 16 cases more than 2 years. Results: It was found that 20 cases are females (35.7%) and 36 cases are males (64.2%). Regarding residency 45 (80.3%) were living in urban areas, 11 (19.6%) were living in rural areas. Positive family history was present in 16 cases (28.5%); 10 of them had affected sibling; 3 had parent affected and other relatives in 3 cases. From a total 56 cases, only 25 cases (44.6%) were on breast feeding; 5 (8.9%) on artificial feeding; 10 (17.8%) on mixed feeding; 16 28.5%) were on ordinary diet. History of pica is present in 27 cases (48.25%), negative in 14 (25%); unknown in 15 (26.87%). Kohl application is used in 18 cases (46%) out of 39 patients below 1 year of age; negative in 9 cases (23%) unknown in 12 cases (30.7%). The highest number of cases reported over the decade was on the year 1996 (14 cases). Most presenting sign is pallor 47 cases (83.9%), most presenting symptoms is fit 18 cases (32%). Commonest type of anemia is hypochromic microcytic in 19 cases (33.9%). White line in X-ray of bones is positive in 24 cases from 35 cases (68.5%). Urine δ ALA is positive in 24 cases from 35 cases (86.5%). The mean value of δ ALA was 29.7. Blood punctate basophilia is present in 20 cases (35.7%). Conclusion: Lead poisoning continues to be a major public health problem with high mortality and long hospital stay. Children in the first 2 years of life are mostly affected, males are more than females.
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