Dynamics of Congenital Development Disorders Prevalence in Ukrainian Regions and their Structure in Kherson RegionJournal: Ukrainian journal of medicine, biology and sport (Vol.2, No. 4)
Publication Date: 2017-08-31
Authors : Lanovenko Elena;
Page : 175-179
Keywords : congenital malformations; monitoring; population; gene pool;
Congenital malformation in children is a serious medical and social problem. It is one of the main causes of child morbidity, disability and mortality accounting for a substantial part of the genetic load. Most malformations develop against breakage of the chromosome apparatus, embryonic dysplasia, immunodeficiency states, caused by in utero exposure on the fetus infection and harmful environmental factors. According to our data, the overall frequency of malformations among new-borns in Kherson region in average years of study (2002-2012) is directly correlated with the frequency of “model” malformations (r = 0,69, p<0,05), that testifies that the increase in the malformations prevalence in the region mainly due to the increase in the malformations frequency of strict accounting, which have a significant hereditary component. The urgency of current problem increases significantly amid rising environmental and genetic-demographic factors can influence the gene pool of human populations and act on the fetus, disrupting his development and leads to the malformations forming. In reality some interspecific differences exist in genetic composition of populations due to differences in the age and national structure, marital relations, migration processes. In this context, the aim of the article is to examine the dynamics of congenital malformations prevalence among new-borns and miscarriages in Ukrainian regions for the period 2002-2011; to determine the structure and dynamics of the malformations frequency among new-borns in Kherson region and Kherson city for the same period. There are differences in the overall congenital malformations frequency among new-borns and miscarriages in various of Ukraine, especially in the Western and Eastern regions, where the prevalence of malformations was significantly higher (respectively of 32.56±0,09‰ and 31.3±0,07‰), the average figure in Ukraine (representation is at 26.83±0,08‰). Against the background of rapid growth in the birth defects prevalence among new-borns in Kherson region – from 22.29 ‰ in 2002-2006 to 40.09 ‰ in 2007-2011 – some parts of the region demonstrate significantly lower indicators (10,55-16,59 ‰) or significantly higher (32,36 is 41.5 ‰) of the average regional level (31,19 ‰) over a 10-year study period. Such differences in the birth defects frequency in specific regions of Ukraine and within the same region among populations can provide evidence of prevailing genetic-demographic conditionality, the congenital malformations among the reasons for their prevalence. In the structure of congenital malformations among new-borns in Kherson region the leading place is occupied by circulatory system malformations (28,5%), musculoskeletal system malformations (own 26.05%), genitourinary system malformations (15,25%) and digestive system (12.7 per cent). Indicators of congenital malformations frequency and structure can serve not only as markers of population genetic load, but also as indicators of the degree of historical gene pools.
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