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Nanoparticle Encapsulation for Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

Journal: Journal of Nanotechnology and Materials Science (Vol.4, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 53-61

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HIV continues to be one of the greatest challenges facing the global health community. More than 36 million people currently live with HIV and, in 2015 2.1 million new infections were reported globally. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) prevents HIV infection by inhibiting viral entry, replication, or integration at the primary site of pathogenic contraction. Failures of large antiretroviral drug (ARV) PrEP clinical trials indicate the current insufficiencies of PrEP for women in high-risk areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. A combination of social, adherence, and drug barriers create these insufficiencies and limit the efficacy of ARV. Nanotechnology offers the promise of extended drug release and enhances bioavailability of ARVs when encapsulated in polymeric nano-particles. Nanoparticle encapsulation has been evaluated in vitro in comparative studies to drug solutions and exhibit higher efficacy and lower cytotoxicity profiles. Delivery systems for nanoparticle PrEP facilitate administration of nano-encapsulated ARVs to high-risk tissues. In this mini-review, we summarize the comparative nanoparticle and drug solution studies and the potential of two delivery methods: thermosensitive gels and polymeric nanoparticle films for direct prophylactic applications.

Last modified: 2017-12-16 14:31:53