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Reconstruction of European Geopolitics with a Special Reference to Mackinder's Heartland Theory

Journal: International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (Vol.2, No. 2)

Publication Date:

Authors : ;

Page : 291-298

Keywords : Geology; Geopolitics; Europe; USA; Cold War; Germany; Pivot;

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European geopolitics has been ever been a matter of discussion for the political geographers. The geostrategic theory of Halford Mackinder has helped in organising the thoughts in a proper way. Mackinder's theory was written under a tensed environment when European nations were preparing themselves for a great conflict either to safeguard their sovereignty or to glorify their nation. The theory was changed by the author several times as European politics never stood still since 1904. This paper tries to review the great events of European history that led to even greater political rearrangements. Renaissance was the first leap towards modern Europe followed by Industrial Revolution when European nations formed colonies in Asian and African countries with an economic motive. This eventually turned into a competition giving rise to dissatisfaction, aggression and discontent which ultimately led to World War I. Germany after the first war again arranged the arena for another war. The Second World War ended by inviting Cold War by dividing the world into two blocks; one around the Soviet Union and other one was United States. Gradually, Europe divided into two parts, Western Europe allied with the United States and Eastern Europe became the devotee of USSR. From that time, USA always tried to establish a policy which directly hamper the development of Russian territory specially reference to Germany. As a result, during 1945 Germany was divided into two parts namely Western and Eastern Germany. At 1990s, Germany was reunited with the crumple of communism and a modern geopolitics was started. Germany was again the most powerful States under European Nation; consistently supports policies aimed at advancing EU-NATO cooperation. USA in 2004 tried to establish world hegemony by military intervention in Eastern Europe, USSR and Central Asia to weaken their unity which might be a threat to American supremacy. So, with the different interventions of event, a very clear notion has come that the geographical proximity of the Pivot area still exists. Anindita Mukherjee | Mallicka Banerjee"Reconstruction of European Geopolitics with a Special Reference to Mackinder's Heartland Theory" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-2 | Issue-2 , February 2018, URL:'s-heartland-theory/anindita-mukherjee

Last modified: 2018-08-02 13:35:53